A few weeks back at work we had an isolated incident in my where a password was inadvertently exposed by a staff member, luckily it was only exposed internally and to a limited number of staff so there was no real harm done, apart from some slight embarrassment for the person who’s password we saw. A password reset fixed the issue-at-hand. However, It got me wondering about password security.
At $dayjob we store passwords in a directory system called LDAP, it serves as a database for all user accounts, groups and a variety of other directory related things, when staff join the organisation we add them to the database and then the newbies can log into our various systems. When a user changes their password, something we ask them to do when they first log on, the password is immediately hashed and then stored in the LDAP database. What this means is that the password is never exposed to HR, IT or any other staff. If we did look into the LDAP database all we can see is a string of random characters, something like: aHR0cDovL2JpdC5seS8ydk0wVWIyIGZvciBtb3JlIGluZm8K
The reason why i’m explaining this is because when the password was exposed by the unknowing staff member, I actually got to see a plaintext password and I noticed that the password was a dictionary word with two numbers on the end of it, something like: Jacket01. Now although this technically is an alpha-numeric password with capitalisation, it doesn’t take too much computing power (or guessing) to crack the password hash if it ever were exposed, in fact using a dictionary word with 3 random characters at the end of the word takes 9 seconds using my Mac with no GPU processing.
I then became a little curious and decided to setup a test of our password security (well, our staff passwords). I took all of the password hashes we have in LDAP, found a dictionary wordlist I had lying around and ran a password cracking tool called hashcat over all of the the hashes. I wanted to see how good (or bad) we were at having secure passwords. Out of about 440 hashes that I pulled from our LDAP tree I was able to discover 30 or so passwords which are too weak to consider safe, and needed changing. (That happened a few weeks ago).
The test I ran was using a dictionary wordlist with some variation rules applied, it does things like adds capitalisation on letters, numbers to the start &/or end of the word and tries things like replacing letters with numbers, for example: the letter o is replaced with a numeric 0 so the word ‘password’ becomes ‘passw0rd’. This means that for each word in the wordlist i’ve used, i’m able to test a number of variations, each as separate passwords attempts. This means that from a wordlist of about 16,000 words I’m able to create 480,000 individual passwords. If i was to use a larger wordlist (easily done) or use a longer list of variations (probably not necessary), I could likely guess more passwords.
This is why having strong password entropy is important.
What makes a good password?
Having good password entropy (password strength) makes a good password. It doesn’t just mean having an alphanumeric password, it means having a password that is difficult to predict and would require a lot of computing power to brute-force. This means making it long enough and unpredictable enough to guess with a basic wordlist.
However, unless you use a password manager, and even then the password you use to unlock your password manager needs to be rememberable enough for you to recall it. A useful tip when trying to create a password that is memerable for you, yet difficult to crack is to use multiple words that you can remember, string them together and then add some capitalisation and replace some characters with numbers and special characters. Check out the below graphic, courtesy of kxcd.
There’s a neat website which can generate passwords for you using the method above: https://www.xkpasswd.net
Setting up the test
So, how did I actually crack 30 passwords? Well, you probably don’t need to go to the lengths I did however, I wanted results in minutes/hours rather than days/weeks, so I rushed it and took advantage of AWS’s EC2, in particular the GPU instances.
Note: everything in this section assumes you kind of know what you’re doing and if you get stuck, you’re capable of searching stackoverflow 🙂 It also assumes you have a list of hashes you want to crack and a dictionary wordlist used to seed hashcat.
1 – Spin up the VM
Login to your AWS console and spin up a g2.8xlarge GPU instance, Make sure you specify Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (HVM). You don’t need any large disk space, so just accept the defaults. Make sure that your security group allows you access to the VM via SSH and make sure you’re giving it a public/elastic IP.
Grab the public IP address of your VM and ssh into is as the ubuntu user:
$ ssh [email protected]
2 – Setup drivers to get maximum performance
You could totally skip this, but if you’re paying $3/hour for a VM then it makes sense to spend 1 minute getting the maximum performance out of the GPUs.
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:graphics-drivers $ apt-get update && apt-get install nvidia-opencl-dev nvidia-cuda-dev p7zip-full linux-image-extra-virtual nvidia-opencl-dev nvidia-cuda-dev nvidia-370 $ apt-mark hold nvidia-370 $ echo options nouveau modeset=0 | sudo tee -a /etc/modprobe.d/nouveau-kms.conf
Now you want to open up /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nouveau.conf with your favorite text editor and make sure it looks like:
blacklist nouveau blacklist lbm-nouveau options nouveau modeset=0 alias nouveau off alias lbm-nouveau off
Update initramfs and reboot:
$ sudo update-initramfs -u $ sudo reboot
Check to make sure you’ve loaded the nvidia kernel modules, this should return something:
$ lsmod | grep nvidia
Fine tune the GPUs:
sudo nvidia-smi -pm 1 sudo nvidia-smi -acp 0 sudo nvidia-smi — auto-boost-permission=0 sudo nvidia-smi -ac 2505,875
3 – Install hashcat
$ wget https://hashcat.net/files/hashcat-22.214.171.124z $ 7z x hashcat-126.96.36.199z
So now, prepare your wordlist and your hashes, each file should be a plain text file containing one word or hash per line. (I’m talking about two separate files here). Upload your wordlist and your hashes onto the server, let’s say in your home directory as wordlist.txt and hashes.txt.
If you don’t have a wordlist, it should be pretty easy to find one on any of the torrent websites out there. If you’re desperate, post a comment below and Ill share one with you privately.
So now you’ve got your server, your wordlist and your hashes, along with hashcat ready to go. I’d recommend opening up a screen or tmux session to kick off the cracking process:
$ tmux $ cd hashcat-3.6.0/ $ ./hashcat64.bin -a 0 ~/hashes.txt -r rules/best64.rule ~/wordslist.txt -w 4
Just a word of warning: You may need to adjust the flags and if all of your hashes are of the same type, you should tell Hashcat by using the -m flag. (eg: -m 500 for MD5CRYPT)